Outline:

Introduction

The field of web development is gaining even more popularity in the new decade. Organizations are already focusing on having a strong online presence. As a result, they seek talented people who can make use of the latest technologies to develop great web applications for the new generation.

Do you have interest in learning web development? Are you a web developer already? If you want to become a back-end web developer in 2020 or later, this article is for you. I am going to explain back-end web development in detail including all the languages, frameworks and libraries.

What is Back-end Web Development?

Back-end development refers to the programs and scripts which run behind the scene of a web application. It is a process where an application communicates with a server when we interact with the interface.

Back-end comprise of three components i.e server, application and database. Back-end creates a link between the server and the user.  It is thereby creating a high demand for proficient and experienced back-end developers.

Who is a Back-end Developer?

Back-end developers are responsible for creating the actual logic of a web application. A back-end developer must have in-depth knowledge of certain back-end programming languages, libraries and frameworks.

Back-end developer is responsible for creating, maintaining, testing, and debugging the entire back-end. In addition to that a back-end developer must have some knowledge of basic front-end languages such as, HTML and CSS.

What Technology Stacks are Used in Back-end Web Development?

There are many high level languages of back-end web development. There are a number of options available while choosing which back-end programming language and framework you want to work with. Although each technology has its own set of pros and cons.

Backed-end programming languages can either be object-oriented or functional. The following programming languages and frameworks are used mostly.

Languages

Java

Java is a general purpose programming language that is object- oriented and classed based.  It is known for its cross-platform compatibility feature. Java uses an engine called JVM (Java Virtual Machine) that provides a runtime environment to run the Java code and its applications.
Java is extremely popular with business software developers and desktop. It is less friendly for beginners than a language like python. Java released 15 versions till 2020 from its first development in 1995.

PHP

PHP stands for Hypertext Preprocessor and is an open-source scripting language on the server side. It is also an interpreted language and also platform-independent.PHP generates Dynamic content and it can be integrated with other databases like Oracle, MYSQL, PostgreSQL, Sybase, Microsoft SQL Server, and Informix.
According to PHP website, you can do following major things:

  • Server-side scripting
  • Command line scripting
  • Writing desktop applications

Python

You might be wondering which is the most popular back-end programming language in 2020?  Well, Python is something which I recommend you to start learning now. It has gained a lot of attention in the last decade due to its use in Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning algorithms.
Python is the most user-friendly back-end programming language and it has a variety of applications that make it powerful and versatile. It is open-source and platform independent.

Top 5  frameworks used in back-end web development 2020

  1. Django
  2. Laravel
  3. Ruby on Rails
  4. Flask
  5. Express

Django - Python Framework

Django is a Python framework that helps in building web applications. Django offers a lot of built-in packages that are used for fast development of APIs and web applications. It is an open-source web development framework.

Laravel - PHP Framework

Laravel framework is one of the useful frameworks for building fast back-end web applications. It is also known as a fully-featured back-end web development framework. Laravel follows the MVC architectural pattern and was built to facilitate extensive back-end development.

Ruby on Rails - Ruby Framework

Ruby on Rails is a free open source MVC back-end web development framework written in Ruby. It offers a similar design and philosophy to programmers. It encourages the design patterns such as MVC ( Model View Controller) and DRY ( don’t repeat yourself).

Flask - Python Framework

Flask framework is based on Python language. It offers support for the things like for secure cookies, unit testing, Jinja2 templating, and RESTful request dispatching. Flask offers the ability to build prototypes quickly and it also provides extensive documentation.

Express - JavaScript Framework

It is an open-source JavaScript framework build for the back-end web development. Express is a fast, minimalist framework for Node.js. It provides a thin layer of fundamental web application features, without obscuring Node.js features.

Other Frameworks

Node.js, ASP.Net, MYSQL, MongoDB, Express.js, Django, PostgreSQL etc are also used to build various web applications.

The main focus of all the above technologies is the same i.e, to create and maintain server functionality, business logic, creating API, API development & integration and communicating with databases. The following are most used back-end programming languages in 2020.

In Conclusion

Web development has many faces, and a website or an application can develop with the combination of various technologies. There are a variety of back-end development languages and its frameworks to choose from, each with their own set of pros and cons.

The type of development you’re thinking of pursuing, but the above skills set and stacks you need to have a strong knowledge of it. Hopefully this list of back-end frameworks give you some direction whether you are starting a new project or just learning the basics.